Acetyl Hexapeptide-8, also known as agireline and acetyl hexapeptide-3, it, like all peptides, has water-binding properties and skin-restoring abilities. It is considered a neurotransmitter-inhibiting peptide, meaning it could have the ability to target expression wrinkles.

Algae Extract are very simple, chlorophyll-containing organisms in a family that includes more than 20,000 different known species. In cosmetics, algae act as thickening agents, water-binding agents, and antioxidants. Some forms of algae, such as Irish moss and carrageenan, contain proteins, vitamin A, sugar, starch, vitamin B1, iron, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, and calcium. Most of these are beneficial for skin, as emollients, soothing agents, or antioxidants. New research shows forms of brown algae show promise for improving the appearance of aging skin. As a plant ingredient, all types of algae are prone to breaking down with routine exposure to air and light. Because of this, avoid anti-aging products with algae that are packaged in jars.

Bakuchiol is a natural antioxidant and anti-aging ingredient found in the seeds and leaves of the plant Psoralea corylifolia. This plant, also known as babchi, is native to and grows throughout India, where it plays a role in Ayurvedic medicine, and is also found in China (where it’s used in Chinese natural medicine) as well as parts of Africa. Ongoing in vitro (Petri dish) and in vivo (on skin) research has shown that bakuchiol seems to have skin-restoring ability when applied twice daily, and that it may also have a brightening effect on skin. Research has also shown this plant ingredient has soothing and anti-wrinkle properties as well as helping to visibly improve skin color and tone.

Phytosphingosine is a mixture of fatty acids caproic acid and phytosphingosine, this ingredient works to replenish and restore a healthier-looking skin surface, creating a smooth, hydrated feel. As a component of naturally occurring ceramides, phytosphingosine is brilliant for stopping moisture loss from skin’s uppermost layers.

Carbomer is a texture enhancer, used primarily to create gel-like formulations

Caprylyl Glycol is a skin and hair conditioning agent that may be plant-derived or synthetic. Often used as part of a preservative blend in cosmetics.

Castor Oil is a vegetable oil derived from the castor bean whose main fatty acid is ricinoleic acid. It is used in cosmetics as an emollient, though its unique property is that when dry it forms a solid film that can have water-binding properties.

Ceramides are naturally occurring, long chains of lipids (fats) that are major components of skin’s outer layers. Skin inhibits water movement and controls loss via its structure, which has a unique composition of 50% ceramides, 25% cholesterol, and 15% free fatty acids. Ceramides are necessary for their water-retention capacity and adding them to a skincare product helps provide replenishing and restoring benefits. Nine different ceramides have been identified in skin, some of which are used in skincare products. On a skincare product ingredient label, you’ll see those listed as ceramide AP, ceramide EOP, ceramide NG, ceramide NP, ceramide NS, phytosphingosine, and sphingosine.

Cholesterol is a natural component of skin’s barrier, accounting for 15% of its fatty acid content. Research shows that a deficiency of cholesterol in skin can lead to dryness. When cholesterol is applied to skin topically, it plays a replenishing role to support the moisture balance and lipid composition for healthier looking/feeling skin. Reinforcing skin’s outermost layers in this way also helps it resist damage from external stressors (think harmful bacteria, pollutants, etc.).

Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin-like, fat-soluble substance naturally present in the body. A handful of studies have shown that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may help improve the appearance of signs of aging. There is also research showing that environmental factors deplete the presence of CoQ10 in the skin. The latest research suggests that topical application of CoQ10 has antioxidant and skin-soothing effects.

Disodium Phosphate is used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.

Emulsifying Wax blends and helps to keep unlike ingredients together, e.g., oils and water. There is also research showing they can help enhance the absorption of skincare ingredients and may be useful for prolonged topical delivery.

Glycerine is a skin-replenishing and skin-restoring ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin, helping to establish normal balance and hydration. It’s one of the many substances in skin that helps maintain a healthy look and feel, defending against dryness and working to maintain skin’s moisture level. Essentially, glycerin is a master at hydration, and works best when combined with other replenishing and emollient ingredients.

Green Tea Extract has many benefits for skin, including anti-aging properties. The polyphenols in green tea possess potent antioxidant and skin-soothing properties and shows significant promise for improving the appearance of sun-damaged skin.

Hyaluronic Acid is a component of skin tissue. Synthetic variations are used in skincare products to function as a superior skin-replenishing ingredient. Hyaluronic acid has restorative abilities and can boost skin’s moisture content, soothe, and defend against moisture loss. It can hold up to 1,000 times its own weight in water, making it an optimal hydrator for all skin types.>

In addition to its function as a superior skin-restoring ingredient, hyaluronic acid also provides an antioxidant defense against environmental assault. Consumed orally via supplements, hyaluronic acid (both low and high molecular weights) can improve skin’s ability to stay hydrated, visibly decrease wrinkle depth and surface roughness, and help reinforce skin’s protective barrier.

Niacinamide (also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinamide) is a unique skin-restoring ingredient that offers a multitude of benefits for skin. It is best known for its ability to help visibly reduce enlarged pores and improve uneven/dull skin tone. It also strengthens a weakened skin barrier. An advantage of niacinamide’s antioxidant power is that it can help visibly repair damage from UV light while offsetting other sources of environmental attack (including the negative impact of airborne pollutants). Another helpful benefit is that niacinamide helps fortify skin’s surface against moisture loss and dehydration by boosting its natural production of skin-strengthening ceramides. Studies have also shown niacinamide has a positive effect on reducing wrinkle depth.

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 is a synthetic peptide and consists of 3 chains of amino acids link together with fatty acids. Palmitoyl tripeptide can enter epidermis and can penetrate deep into the dermis, where it can help to stimulate collagen production and helps to grow healthy tissue growth.

Pentapeptide-18 is a five amino-acid peptide that is claimed to target expression wrinkles that appear due to facial movements. Its effect is like that of the older and more famous argireline peptide. They achieve similar results but in a different way.

Peptides are portions of short or long-chain amino acids, and amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Skin is composed primarily of a protein known as keratin, so peptides have a role to play as part of a complete skincare routine. Some peptides have demonstrated a remarkable skin-soothing effect, while others can improve the appearance of wrinkles, loss of firmness, and even help to soften the look of expression lines. Ongoing research has shown that all peptides have some amount of skin-restorative ability, assuming the formulation supports the type of peptide used and is packaged to protect it from degrading from light and air exposure during use (no jars!).

Phenoxyethanol is a safe preservative known to be well-tolerated by skin; offers wide spectrum protection against unwanted microbials in a formula.

Raspberry Seed Oil contains a broad mix of antioxidants, including ascorbic acid (vitamin C) beta-carotene, glutathione, quercetin, and vitamin E. Raspberry is also a source of a type of polyphenol known as ellagitannins, such as those from antioxidant ellagic acid. This group of tannins does not have the astringent quality of the type of tannins that naturally occur in the witch hazel plant. Applied to skin, red raspberry can inhibit enzymes in skin that lead to signs of discolorations and loss of firmness. Of course, these benefits also rely on daily use of broad-spectrum sunscreen to protect skin from exposure to UV light.

Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic antioxidant abundant in red grapes and, therefore, in red wine. Applied topically, resveratrol helps protect skin’s surface and helps rebuff negative environmental influences. It also has significant skin-calming properties that may help minimize the look of redness.

Rosehip Seed Oil is a non-fragrant emollient plant oil that has antioxidant properties and is a rich source of skin-beneficial fatty acids.

Shea Butter is a rich source of antioxidants, including quercetin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, as well as skin-replenishing fatty acids (stearic and linoleic).

Squalane is a moisturizing agent that is used extensively in both the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industries. While it may be obtained from several plant sources, including Sugarcane and Rice bran, Olive Oil is the vegetable source that is most abundant in this protective “n” emollient, which results from the unsaponifiable fractions of Olive Oil. Squalane is easily absorbed by human skin because it is a derivative of the unsaturated terpene hydrocarbon called Squalene, an oily molecule that occurs naturally in the sebum of human skin. With age, the skin’s natural Squalene production begins to decline, making products with Squalane more valuable as skin begins to lose its moisture, smoothness, and strength.

Vitamin E is One of the most well-known and researched antioxidants for the body and for skin. Vitamin E occurs naturally in human skin, but can become depleted due to constant environmental exposure in the absence of sun protection. Research has shown that natural forms of vitamin E are more effective than their synthetic counterparts, but both have antioxidant activity.